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Perthes, Marcus Tullis Cicero BC was a Roman statesman and philosopher whose lifetime coincided with the decline and fall of the Roman republic. If you know the book but cannot find it on AbeBooks, we can automatically search for it on your behalf as new inventory is added. We're featuring millions of their reader ratings on our book pages to help you find your new favourite book.
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In Verrem | Open Library
Transportation Paperback Vintage Paperback Books. Cicero procured a Senatus Consultum de Re Publica Defendenda a declaration of martial law , and he drove Catiline from the city with four vehement speeches the Catiline Orations , which to this day remain outstanding examples of his rhetorical style.
The Orations listed Catiline and his followers' debaucheries, and denounced Catiline's senatorial sympathizers as roguish and dissolute debtors, clinging to Catiline as a final and desperate hope.
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Cicero demanded that Catiline and his followers leave the city. At the conclusion of his first speech, Catiline burst from the Temple of Jupiter Stator. He delivered the second and third orations before the people, and the final before the Senate. By these speeches Cicero wanted to prepare the Senate for the worst possible case; he also delivered more evidence against Catiline. Catiline fled and left behind his followers to start the revolution from within while Catiline assaulted the city with an army of "moral bankrupts and honest fanatics".
Catiline had attempted to involve the Allobroges, a tribe of Transalpine Gaul, in their plot, but Cicero, working with the Gauls, was able to seize letters which incriminated the five conspirators and forced them to confess their crimes in front of the Senate. The Senate then deliberated upon the conspirators' punishment. As it was the dominant advisory body to the various legislative assemblies rather than a judicial body, there were limits to its power; however, martial law was in effect, and it was feared that simple house arrest or exile At first most in the Senate spoke for the "extreme penalty"; many were then swayed by Julius Caesar, who decried the precedent it would set and argued in favor of life imprisonment in various Italian towns.
Cato then rose in defence of the death penalty and all the Senate finally agreed on the matter. Cicero had the conspirators taken to the Tullianum, the notorious Roman prison, where they were strangled. Cicero himself accompanied the former consul Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, one of the conspirators, to the Tullianum.
Cicero received the honorific " Pater Patriae " for his efforts to suppress the conspiracy, but lived thereafter in fear of trial or exile for having put Roman citizens to death without trial. In 58 BC Publius Clodius Pulcher, the tribune of the plebs, introduced a law the Leges Clodiae threatening exile to anyone who executed a Roman citizen without a trial. Cicero, having executed members of the Catiline conspiracy four years previously without formal trial, and having had a public falling-out with Clodius, was clearly the intended target of the law.
Cicero argued that the senatus consultum ultimum indemnified him from punishment, and he attempted to gain the support of the senators and consuls, especially of Pompey. Cicero's exile caused him to fall into depression. He wrote to Atticus: "Your pleas have prevented me from committing suicide.
But what is there to live for? Don't blame me for complaining. My afflictions surpass any you ever heard of earlier".
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After the intervention of recently elected tribune Titus Annius Milo, the senate voted in favor of recalling Cicero from exile. Clodius cast a single vote against the decree. He was greeted by a cheering crowd, and, to his delight, his beloved daughter Tullia.
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Cicero tried to reintegrate himself into politics, but on attacking a bill of Caesar's proved unsuccessful. The conference at Luca in 56 BC forced Cicero to make a recantation and pledge his support to the triumvirate. Fuhrmann was born on 23 June in Hiddesen near Detmold. He started his studies in Leiden.
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While Fuhrmann wanted to study music, he gave up this plan in favour of classical philology and jurisprudence, whereby the classical philology was decisive for him. Also, he was a member of the Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften academy of sciences of Heidelberg and of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences since Furthermore, the University of Freiburg gave Fuhrmann an honorary doctorate in jurisprudence. He died on 12 January Fuhrmann is generally considered to be one of the most eminent German philologists.
During his lifetime he has undoubtedly achieved a lot: Above all he has worked as a translator — having translated a huge amount of classical Latin and Ancient Greek texts into German: His probably most outstanding achievement was to translate all of Cicero's speeches. Besides he has translated texts from other classical authors like Horace, Aristotle and Plato.
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